Chinese Auto Parts Companies Hit With $2.5 Million Penalties

Blowing the whistle on big time corporate tax cheaters can not only help the US economy but it can make a nice reward for the whistleblower too. Today's blog is a guest post from our friends at Berger & Montague, PC, a nationally known law firm that handles Whistleblower Claims, and it's a man who helped the government go after tax cheaters on a big scale.

Multiple Companies Named in False Claims Act Lawsuit Involving Misclassified Automotive Manifold Parts

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A $6.3 million settlement was recently reached in a case that involved
several companies incorrectly classifying auto parts that were manufactured in China and imported to the United States. The misclassification was apparently done in an effort to avoid paying the US government $2.5 million in taxes. The settlement follows an investigation conducted by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement's (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI).
China Metal Products Company operates a North American plant in Milford, Michigan under the name of CMAI Industries LLC. CMAI Industries, along with several of China Metal’s international subsidiaries, all took part in the automotive scheme, falsely classifying commercial truck exhaust manifolds imported from China to avoid paying a duty charge. The way the company got around paying the duty fees was to simply classify the automotive manifolds as "unfinished." The reason for claiming the manifolds were unfinished? Under United States law, when unfinished automotive manifolds are imported to the United States, they are not charged a duty fee. If the truck manifolds had been correctly classified as finished, CMAI Industries would have been forced to pay a duty on each shipment.

"Our country was built on the duties collected under our customs laws and the enforcement of those laws continues to be an HSI priority two centuries later," said Brian M. Moskowitz, special agent in charge of HSI Michigan and Ohio. "HSI special agents will continue to protect the revenue of the United States and aggressively investigate individuals and companies who attempt to operate outside our laws and regulations."

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Companies and Individuals Involved in the Auto Parts Scam
These corporations are a group of related entities, operating in China, Taiwan and the United States, that manufacture and sell automotive parts. As part of each company’s operation, auto parts were routinely imported into the United States and sold around the nation. The companies involved in this scandal agreed to the settlement as a way to resolve claims that they violated the False Claims Act by falsely misclassifying the auto parts. The long list of companies and citizens involved in this False Claims Act lawsuit are:

CMAI Industries, LLC, a Michigan limited liability company doing business as CMAI North America
China Metal Products Co., Ltd.
China Metal Automotive International Co., Ltd.
China Metal International Holdings, Inc.
CMP (Hong Kong) Industry Co., Ltd.
CMW (Cayman Islands) Co., Ltd.
Shiuh-Lung Chiang, also known as Ronny Chiang
Ho Ming-Shiann 
Special agents with HSI recovered more than $4 million of the total $6.3 million paid in settlement fines from assets that were seized during the investigation. This case first came to the government's attention due to a lawsuit filed under the "qui tam" or whistleblower provisions of the False Claims Act.

What is the False Claims Act?
The False Claims Act allows private citizens who have first-hand knowledge of fraud against the government to file a lawsuit on behalf of the United States government. When whistleblowers consider bringing a Qui Tam lawsuit against their employers, it is vital to first seek out the professional advice of highly skilled lawyers in this particular legal niche, such as the legal team at 
Berger & Montague, P.C. Whistleblowers that bring a successful False Claims Act lawsuit are entitled to a share of the money that the government receives in any recovery. The whistleblower in this suit, Theodore Ludlow, received $1.2 million as his cut of the money recovered by the United States government.
A Nationally Known Law Firm Protecting Taxpayers
The companies and individuals named in this False Claims Act lawsuit allegedly violated the Act by knowingly and willfully misclassifying automotive manifolds in order to obtain a duty (or tax) rate of zero, all the while charging their customers the correct duty amount of 2.5 percent. Each company then kept the "profit" for themselves, pocketing the duty money that should have been paid to U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). Between June 2004 and June 2011, it is estimated that the companies avoided paying $2,549,000 worth of duty money on 706 separate entries into the United States involving manifolds valued at $102,000,000.

Burdge Law Office
Helping people protect themselves everyday

Identity Theft Resource from NHS

We blogged about identity theft before, explaining what it is, some ideas on how to prevent it, and some things you can do to fix it.

The NHS Consumer Law Center posted a very recent and very nicely detailed blog the other day about credit reports and identity theft issues, including some approaches on dealing with problems in both areas.

Although it focuses on Ohio consumers, the tips and info are applicable everywhere.

It's a great read so click here for more info.

Burdge Law Office
Helping People Protect Themselves, Since 1978


National Consumer Protection Week, Day Four

Do you care about your constitutional right to carry a gun? Did you know that there's another constitutioal right being taken away everyday - and you don't even know it is happening? More about that in a minute.

This is day four of National Consumer Protection Week and we are continuing our week-long series on common consumer frauds and scams, with tips on how to make sure you don't become a victim.

Monday we talked about the latest car dealer scam that we are seeing often in Ohio and elsewhere and Tuesday it was about the hassles of debt collector harassment. Wednesday it was the dangers of Identity Theft. Each day we explained the subject and gave tips on how to avoid it. Today we turn to something new. Something you probably don't even realize is happening to you.

US Bill of Rights in National Archives
There are lots of news stories about the controversy over gun control right now. When you hear all the debate, you quickly realize that there are lots of people who hold tight to the notion that they have a constitutional right to own a gun because of the 2nd Amendment. No matter which side of the argument you are on, most folks don't realize that there are other constitutional rights that are slipping away every day and which can hurt you just as bad - maybe worse.

The US Bill of Rights consisted of ten amendments to the US Constitution in 1791 that were intended to protect what the founders called the natural rights of liberty and property. Fundamental to those ten rights were the right to bear arms (2nd Amendment) and the right to trial by jury (7th Amendment). Both of them have to do with self protection.

They believed in Jury Trials
Our nation was founded on laws and the checks and balances of our social and legal system. The founders had seen the effect on Justice of Judges who made decisions that were influenced by their relationship to those who put them atop their benches. That's why they created the right to a jury trial in the 7th Amendment - to protect citizens from the dangers of judges beholden to unaccountable others and who were out of touch with the common citizenry.

"In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved....."

That means you have a right to have a jury of your peers decide your case when you are in court. Well, that's what it meant and what it ought to still mean too. But not always anymore.

Over the last two hundreds years, you have steadily been losing that right as big business and elected officials beholden to special interests have chipped away at it for their own self-interest and benefit.

Why Trial by Jury Matters. Big Business knows something you don't. Most lawsuits in this country are not people suing people anymore. It's one big business suing another big business over their big business interests. It's all about the money.

And Big Businesses are in the courtroom all the time and they have learned something from it. And they've learned how to use what they learned too. And it won't be good for you.

Predisposed Judges Can Hurt Justice
Judges were lawyers first. And lawyers are trained to be analytical, skeptical, inquisitive, and doubting. They want strong proof of answers to questions, not just simple answers. Big Business saw that because Big Business was in the courtrooms of America every day.

Because of their legal training and their practical experience which hardens that training even more, Judges risk becoming too skeptical and doubtful. And too easily favoring the defendant in civil cases.

And now the Courts say that Big Business can donate money to political campaigns and keep their identity secret. Politicians that are bought and paid for aren't public servants. And Justice isn't blind when it's bought and paid for either.

Can Money Influence Justice but Not Influence a Jury?
The danger to the common man? Simple. Many people believe that after they are elected, politicians are often beholden to those who supported them and whose support they will need when their re-election campaign comes up. And if the donations are secret, you will never know who is buying who - or not. The average guy and gal can't contribute a lot money to politicians - but Big Business can. And the defendant in a courtroom is often Big Business itself.

People say that guns matter because it makes them safe. Well, the right to a trial by jury matters because it is the only thing that has a chance of keeping people honest.

Trial by jury - more important than the right to bear arms? Yes it is. Why? The right to own a gun is the right to use violence when justified. But the right to trial by jury can decide if you were justified at all in the first place. If you lose the right to have your neighbors and other citizens decide if you are innocent or guilty, or if you owe someone else money, or are being ripped off by someone else - if you lose that right, your guns won't matter.

We are a nation of laws first. If you don't have the right to equal treatment before the law, you lose. The only way to make sure you get equal treatment is to put that power in the hands of the citizenry - a jury of your peers.

How are you losing your jury right? It happens every day in little ways. Big Business with its big bucks in donations, realizes that judges may favor them over the lone individual who is just trying to get by in life and has no spare money to donate to high-cost political campaigns.

So Big Business puts into its contracts and sales documents what they call jury waivers and binding mandatory arbitration clauses that they later use to stop you from having a public trial by jury. And most people don't even notice it.

A jury waiver is a sentence or clause in a contract that says you agree to give up your right to have a jury decide if you are telling the truth or not in a dispute that may arise in the future. And you sign it before you even know a dispute exists.

Arbitration Clauses Close the Courthouse Door in Your Face
Binding mandatory arbitration is a clause in a contract that says you agree not to sue someone over anything that happens and that instead you will let a hired person decide in a private room where no one will know what happened or who won or lost and they can make the decision on any basis that they want. And you sign it before you even know you have a dispute. You promise never to go to court at all.

More and more consumer contracts have jury waivers planted in the fine print. You should wonder what a business is afraid of letting a jury find out. If they are honest and fair, they should not be afraid of a jury. But they are.

More and more consumer contracts have binding mandatory arbitration clauses too. You should wonder what a business is afraid of having come out in a public courtroom. If they are honest and fair, they should not be afraid of an open courtroom. But they are.

How can you keep your rights?  Read carefully everything you sign. If you see a jury waiver, take your ink pen and draw a line right over top of it, to strike it out. If you see an arbitration clause, take your ink pen and draw a big "X" right over top of it, to strike it out. Don't agree now - to what Big Business can use later to hurt you.

And if the business says you have to go along with the clause and they won't let you strike it out? Take your business somewhere else. There are plenty of businesses out there that don't require you to give up your right to a jury trial just to buy their product or service. They are run by honest and hard-working people just like you.

For more tips on understanding arbitration clauses and fighting back go to

Get your rights back. Stop going along with jury waivers and arbitration agreements that some businesses and merchants are sneaking up on you with. You want to protect yourself with your guns? You better start protecting yourself with your right to a jury trial too - or no one will be there to listen to you or help you find justice when you get ripped off.

Burdge Law Office
Helping consumers protect themselves everyday.


National Consumer Protection Week, Day Three

Identity thieves are out to steal from you. And they are very good at it. More about that in a minute.

This is day three of National Consumer Protection Week and we are continuing our week-long series on common consumer frauds and scams, with tips on how to make sure you don't become a victim.

Tuesday we talked about debt collector harassment and how to stop it. Monday we talked about the latest car dealer scam, the Presumptive Close and how to make sure you don't get ripped off.

Today, we'll talk about identity theft and how to stop it from hurting you.

What is identity theft? There are bits of information about you that thieves would love to get hold of. Having the right info enables them to open charge accounts in your name, drain your bank account, file false medical claims, and lots more. To open a charge account in your name, run up the tab by purchasing tons of stuff and then skipping with it, all they commonly need is your name and usually just one key bit of identifying information. It can be your driver license number, date of birth, home address, home phone number or - and this is the "gold standard" of info that opens all the doors to your assets - your social security number.

That's why you have to guard that info as much as your wallet on a crowded big city downtown street at rush hour. If you don't, you can wake up one day to find your bank account balance at zero. Or you can find dunning notices in your mail box for charge accounts you didn't know you even had.

How can you prevent identity theft? First know who you're dealing with. If you know the physical street address of a merchant, you know they actually exist. Otherwise, for all you know they could be sitting in a foreign country where you will never find them. Second, don't send money to anyone in life without being very sure about who you are dealing with and double checking to make sure the whole thing is real. You could be giving your money away.

Never carry your social security card with you (keep it at home in a safe place). Charity phone callers, nephews in jail, and all the rest of the phone scams sound real on the phone and look real on the internet. Be suspicious. Be extra careful. Never mail bill payments from your mail box (thieves can pick up your mail).

Get your free credit report once a year (it's free) and go over it carefully to look for any accounts you don't recognize or addresses that aren't your own (and any internet site that wants your credit card number in order to give you a free credit report? well, that's not free - don't give it out). You have a right to a Fair and Accurate Credit Record.

Never, never, never "wire" money to anyone (you can't get it back) and never send someone you don't know for sure cash money. Anyone who wants you to send them cash, and you have never met them, can be assumed to be a ripoff thief. And never, never, never give your checking account number to anyone - don't ever authorize an "electronic funds transfer" because once they have your bank account number, a thief can drain it at will.

If someone on the phone asks for your credit card number or social security number, you should first assume they are a thief and then check everything out and question everything thoroughly before you give out any personal identifying information at all. Remember, you could be giving a thief access to your savings account, your checking account, your IRA, your investment account - everything.

And on the computer, don't use common passwords and try to use different passwords for different web sites too.

How can you fix it when identity theft happens to you? It is not easy. Speed matters too. Act quickly to minimize the damage that is done. First, know your rights as a victim of Identity Theft - federal law does give you some legal rights.

Then, call the Ohio Attorney General's Identity Theft Unit for help. Put a fraud alert on your credit record with all 3 of the credit reporting agencies - some of them will also let you "lock" your credit record from access and that can help tremendously. And dispute any fraud or false info on your credit report. You can use this letter (click here) to dispute anything on your credit report for free.

Then file a police report and get a copy of the police report too. You will very likely need it later.

If a credit card has been opened in your name and it isn't you, notify the fraud department of the store or bank both on the phone and in writing. If your bank account is tampered with, close the account immediately. Check with your bank or credit card company to see if they have an "Identity Theft Repair Kit" like Wells Fargo has on the internet. The Colorado Attorney General also has a terrific 28 page booklet you can read on the internet called Identity Theft Repair Kit with tons of tips and info you can use. You can even get an ID Theft Fix-it Kit from Nolo, the folks who publish low cost legal guides of all kinds.

Want more info? You can get more info on how to straighten out your financial life after identity theft if you click here.

Burdge Law Office
Helping consumers protect themselves every day


National Consumer Protection Week, Day Two

Debt collectors can drive you nuts. And that's what they are actually trying to do too, but more about that in a minute.

Today is day two of the National Consumer Protection Week. Yesterday we talked about the latest car dealer scam, the presumptive close. Today let's talk about debt collector harassment and how to stop it.

Each year the Federal Trade Commission looks at all the complaints they get from consumers in the prior year and counts them up to see what people are complaining about the most. You might think it was the Wall Street bankers who stole all our retirement money, right? You'd be wrong. That is just so 2009.

This year Debt Collectors took First Place as the top consumer complaint category for 2012.

Debt collector harassment has turned into a rampant, no holds barred industry in the US. Threats to put you in jail, to take your kids, to tell all your neighbors that you owe money, and some things much worse - all of it happens every day. And all of it is illegal.

Why do they do it? Because intimidation works. They frighten people into paying and that's the name of their game.

To get a sample of some of it, go to this YouTube video of an ABC News show and you can listen to some of the harassment and see what we mean. It's rough out there, folks.

Good people can hit hard times and have to deal with debt collectors calling. And many debt collectors (well, okay, maybe not many) are reasonable and fair and just trying to do their job and are reasonable and courteous. But then there are the ones who call you at all hours of the night, leave nasty notes on your front door, call your elderly parents or your neighbors, etc, etc.

So how do you stop it? Know your rights and when they cross the line, do something about it. But don't just get even. Get a lawyer and get some Justice too.

First, your rights. You have the legal right to be treated fairly and with civility by a debt collector. And there are some specific things that a debt collector is forbidden from doing.

They can't call you before 8 in the morning or after 9 at night. They can't call you at work if your employe doesn't all it either - but you have to tell them that first, so they know it.

They can't curse you. They can't insult you or demand that you pay more than is actually owed. They can't lie and they can't say they will take your kids away if you don't pay them. And, yes, they can't threaten to put you in jail if you don't pay either.

The last notice you get from a debt collector is this
You can stop a debt collector from harassing you by just sending them a letter and telling them to stop. Once they get it, they can't contact you again, except to tell you that they are going to sue you over the debt. But be forewarned - stopping the phone calls does not erase the debt if the money is legitimately owed.

If you have an attorney, once you tell them that, then the debt collector is not allowed to contact you again - they have to deal with your attorney.

And if you don't owe the debt, write a letter to the debt collector within 30 days after you get their written notice of the debt and tell them you don't owe it or to send you proof of the debt. Then they have to either do it or leave you alone.

There are lots of other questions you may have about illegal debt collection and you can click on this web page to read more.

And if the debt collector violates the law anyway? Well, you can file a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission and hire a lawyer to sue them back because if they violate the law, then they can owe you $1,000 plus have to pay your attorney fees, just for that. Call your local attorney's bar association and ask for a referral to a "credit rights" or "debt collection defense" lawyer or check for one at

Getting a lawyer on your side is a great way to teach debt collectors a lesson too.

Burdge Law Office
Helping consumers protect themselves


National Consumer Protection Week, Day One

Car sales fraud is thriving in Ohio, but more about that in a minute.

Today kicks off National Consumer Protection Week and a series of blogs we'll post to help you protect yourself from getting ripped off by Ohio car dealers, credit and debt problems, identify theft, and more. Each day will be a different topic and we'll give you info and tips and resources so you don't waste your money and you don't get ripped off.

Today, we start off with a warning about the latest scam some Ohio car dealers are pulling on consumers to intimidate them into purchases the consumer normally would think over and, in many cases, refuse to make.

Car dealers call it the "presumptive close."

When you go to buy a car there is a step by step process that many Ohio car dealer puts you through, even though you may not realize it. It starts with what they call the "meet and greet" where they learn what your interests are and your budget is - so that they can land you on a car that fits the bill and they can move you to the next stage. In the midst of the process is a step called the F&I department. Actually the finance office (the F&I department's real purpose) is nothing but another selling point where the dealer tries to make more profit off you. Nothing really wrong with that, except when they try to trick you or intimidate you into buying something you either may not want or don't even know about. They call it a presumptive close.
The Presumptive Close can rip you off before you know it

Because the sales person has already gotten the basic info together, the finance sales person already has everything they need to write up all the sales documents. You can tell you are about to get hit with a presumptive close because all the sale papers are typed up and ready to sign when you are ushered into the office of the finance "manager" (who is really just another sales person) after waiting for sometimes an hour or two (or more) waiting "for the documents to be printed up" or so the sales person said. Actually that stalling time is part of the process - an important part for the dealer because it wears you down and tires you out so that you'll be more anxious to get through the finance process just so you can get out of there and go home.

Honest looks can be deceiving
So you walk in and the sales papers are all set for you to sign. You sit down on one site of the desk and the finance manager is on the other side and he says something like, "okay, we have all your sales documents ready and we'll have you out of here in just a few more minutes. I just need you to sign here and here." And with that starts a process where the car dealer takes maximum advantage of two things.

First, your exhaustion. The dealer knows you are getting tired so now is the time to get you to sign the paperwork because you are less likely to be patient and attentive to what is going on.

Second, your trust. The dealer knows that if they build up your trust from the start with the meet and greet, and friendly helpfulness, you will let down your guard. They call it bonding. Some sales or finance sales persons will even tell you that they too have two little kids they love - just like you too. Or they also love fishing - just like you too. Or they also served in the Marine Corp - just like you too. Etc, etc, etc.

So, don't get exhausted and don't let down your guard. If you do, the presumptive close will rob you of thousands of dollars of your hard earned money before you know it. How does it work? Let's go back to that closing room, what the dealer calls the F&I office.

"I just need you to sign here and here" says the finance salesman. And then he slides a sales document over in front of you and helpfully holds the paper still with one hand while his other hand gives you an ink pen and then points to the line to sign on. If you ask or say ask what the document is, he likely will call it by its name and say something like "this is your sales contract and it says you are buying the car for the $21,000 that we talked about plus tax and title, just sign right down here and we'll get you out of here in a few more minutes." Some of them are really smooth and reassuring. The whole process is called a 5 Finger Close and can rip you off before you even know it.

crooked car salesman
Don't trust him
That's the first step in getting ripped off because the finance sales person had one had on the document holding it still for you, or so you thought, when what they were actually doing was using their hand to hide from you the part of the form that said they were also selling you rust proofing for $1,249 (illegal in Ohio and some other states) or etch "theft guard" for an extra $199 or Gap insurance for another $700 or "key care" for $199 or an extended warranty for $2,000 or something new called "Personal Assistant" for an extra $149 or Credit life insurance or credit disability insurance or unemployment insurance or interior fabric or leather protection or a maintenance package or tire protection, etc, etc, etc.

All of it is a ripoff, a lie, and a scam to steal money from you without you knowing it. So how do you stop it?

Two things. Remember? They want you to get tired, exhausted by the waiting. So don't. There is no reason a car dealer can't print off the sales papers in a matter of minutes if they want to. After all, how fast does your printer at home work? So if it takes more than a few minutes, just leave. Don't ask for permission because they will give you one excuse or another to keep you there. Leave. And what do you do if they have your car keys because they were going to check it out in case you wanted to trade it it (a common ruse to "steal" your car keys so you can't leave without buying their car) - tell them to give you back your keys or you will call the cops. They'll still give you one excuse or another, trying to stall you. So just pull out your cell phone and dial call the police and tell them the car dealer has stolen your car keys and your car. Don't know the police phone number? Dial information and ask for it or use your smartphone to look it up.

Don't have a cell phone with you? Then ask where the pay phone is so you can call the police. If they say they don't have one, then tell them you are going across the street, etc, so you can call the police and you'll be right back. Then do it. Remember, you are playing chicken with them now. If you blink, you get ripped off. They don't want to get the police involved (the owner really hates that), so they may huff and puff, but they will eventually give you back your car keys.

And the second thing? Don't ever let your guard down when a car dealer asks you to sign something. Read every bit of it carefully, front and back. And if you see anything you don't like, then don't sign it. Ask what it means and when they tell you then tell them "okay, so write it down that way on the sales contract so we both understand it." If they are being honest with you, there's no reason they would not write it down. If they are up to no good, they will give you one excuse or another and won't do it.

Walk away from car dealer fraud
Read everything. Question anything. Don't accept any excuses. Make them write it out in plain English. And take an ink pen and line out or strike out anything on the sales papers that you don't like. They will say you can't do that, of course, but you really can, of course. Remember. What the car dealer wants at the end of the day is your money. Nothing else counts. If it comes down to striking out that binding arbitration clause or losing the sale, the car dealer will do what it has to do or they will lose the sale. Check out for more about how car dealers use arbitration to rip people off.

Don't ever be afraid to walk away. There are lots of cars for sale at lots of honest car dealers who don't make you sit and wait for hours and who don't try to "buddy up" to you so you'll trust them and let down your guard while they rip you off. When it comes to buying a car nowadays, your walking shoes are your best friend - so don't be afraid to use them.

The presumptive close assumes that if you do notice the extra stuff they "packed" into your deal, that you will go along with it rather than make them redo the paperwork and risk having to wait even longer. Don't fall for it. And don't waste your money. For 9 negotiating tips for buying a car, check out this Avvo Legal Guide by clicking here.

And when all else fails, because they exhausted you and you trusted them and got ripped off anyway? Call us. Helping consumers get their money back is what we do. Everyday. For over 25 years.

Burdge Law Office
Because life is too short to let a car dealer rip you off


The Golden Age of Automobiles Still Exists

1935 Ford Tudor, Photo by Tom Nollan at 2012 GEAA Reunion
There was a time when more than 100 different companies were building cars in the US, many in relatively small cities and towns. The cars they made in the early part of the automobile's history were an eclectic mix of the practical, the sporty, the ordinary and the works of art.

They came in at all price ranges. And those that are still around? Well, they are still coming in at all price ranges.

Each generation seems to favor its own definition of what was the Golden Age of auto manufacturing in America's production history. Many think it's the styling of the 20's or the pragmatic depression-era 1930's. Others fell in love with the body styles of the 50's that ended with the space-age fin look that creeped into the early 1960's too. And the muscle cars of the late 1960's have their own fan clubs too. But then there are the early years. The years before World War II. Maybe it's because of nostalgia or the love of a simpler time and life. Maybe it's because the cars then just looked so darned good and were simpler machines and a thrill to ride because they were not so universally common in American society. The reason doesn't matter. The cars do. And the people who love them. I had forgotten how beautiful the cars were, until my older brother, Larry, reminded me with a link to GEAA.

Largely unknown except for those who love what they do, the Golden Age of Automobiles is still celebrated by devotees nationwide, many of whom are members of a unique group dedicated to this Golden Era, which is probably why they call themselves members of the Golden Era Automobile Association. They celebrate the unique vehicles built between 1915 and 1942.

Rows of GEAA Cars at 2012 Picnic, Photo by Tom Nollan
The GEAA members are not just car people. The vehicles they celebrate include the light trucks and sportscars that ran alongside the average man's car in the first half of the Twentieth Century, a time that many look back on as the best of the automobile manufacturers' years.

Take a look at their 2012 "reunion" picnic photos, courtesy of Tom Nollan, at their website and you'll see many of the unique cars that once were common on America's roadways and many of the GEAA members who look back on the time when 35 mph was an ordinary, routine speed.

These are marvelous cars and people. And they come from a marvelous time in the history of automobile manufacturing.

And there's not a lemon among them.

Burdge Law Office
Helping people get justice. Everyday.